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Gallstone disease (GSD) is a one of the most common of all digestive diseases worldwide [1]. It is associated with obesity, and has been linked to an altered Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio in the gut microbiome [2]. Risk factors for GSD include use of hormonal contraceptives, previous history of biliary symptoms, hip fracture, type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and apolipoprotein E levels [3][4][5][6][7][8]. Prevalence studies have shown that GSD is highly prevalent in many communities around the world [9].

[1]: A population-based cohort study of symptomatic gallstone disease ... (
[2]: Gallstone Disease, Obesity and the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes Ratio ... (
[3]: Prevalence and risk factors of gallstone disease in patients ... (
[4]: The association between gallstone disease (GSD) and hip fracture ... (
[5]: Clinical predictors of incident gallstone disease in a Chinese ... (
[6]: Gallstone Disease and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes | Scientific Reports (
[7]: Pathophysiological connections between gallstone disease, insulin ... (
[8]: The association between apolipoprotein E and gallstone disease ... (
[9]: The Prevalence and Risk Factors for Gallstone Disease in ... (


Gallstone disease (GSD) is a condition in which gallstones form in the gallbladder or bile ducts. Gallstones are hard deposits of cholesterol and other substances that can block the flow of bile, leading to abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, jaundice and other symptoms. Treatment for GSD may include medications to dissolve the stones or surgery to remove them.