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Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition that's triggered by a terrifying event — either experiencing it or witnessing it [1]. It is a psychiatric disorder that may occur in people who have experienced or witnessed a traumatic event such as war, assault, or disaster [2]. PTSD is characterized by symptoms of re-experiencing the trauma through flashbacks and nightmares; avoidance of reminders of the trauma; negative changes in mood and thoughts; and increased arousal such as difficulty sleeping, irritability, outbursts of anger, concentration problems [3]. Treatment for PTSD includes psychotherapy (talk therapy), medications to reduce anxiety and depression symptoms, support groups with other individuals with similar experiences [4], cognitive restructuring techniques to help change how an individual thinks about their experience[5], exposure therapy which involves gradually exposing oneself to memories of the traumatic event[6], relaxation techniques such as deep breathing exercises[7] ,and mindfulness meditation practices[8]. Research has also shown that there are risk pathways between traumatic stress, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and alcohol/drug problems[9] . Additionally, Mind UK states that Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health problem you may develop after experiencing traumatic events. The condition was first recognised in soldiers returning from war but can affect anyone exposed to distressing events.[10]

[1]: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) - Symptoms and causes ... (
[2]: What is Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)? - (
[3]: NIMH » Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (
[4]: PTSD: National Center for PTSD Home (
[5]: Post-traumatic stress disorder - Wikipedia (
[6]: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: MedlinePlus (
[7]: Stress predicts brain changes in children: a pilot longitudinal study ... (
[8]: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): Symptoms, Diagnosis ... (
[9]: Risk pathways among traumatic stress, posttraumatic stress disorder ... (
[10]: What is PTSD? - Mind (


Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition that can develop after someone has experienced or witnessed a traumatic event. Symptoms of PTSD include flashbacks, nightmares, difficulty sleeping, irritability and feeling on edge, avoidance of certain situations or people associated with the trauma, and negative thoughts about oneself or the world. Treatment for PTSD typically includes psychotherapy such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), medications to reduce symptoms such as anxiety and depression, and lifestyle changes to help manage stress levels.