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Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a health problem that is similar to premenstrual syndrome (PMS) but is more severe [2]. It may affect women who are able to get pregnant [1]. PMDD causes a range of emotional and physical symptoms every month, which can interfere with work, social activities, relationships and everyday life [5]. Symptoms include depression, irritability, tension, bloating, headaches and breast tenderness [3], as well as changes in appetite or sleep patterns. These symptoms usually start 7-10 days before the menstrual period begins and last until it ends [7]. PMDD is diagnosed when these symptoms cause significant distress or disruption in daily functioning for at least two consecutive menstrual cycles [6]. Treatment options include lifestyle modifications such as exercise and stress management techniques; medications such as antidepressants; dietary supplements like calcium; hormone therapy; psychotherapy; or a combination of treatments. In some cases surgery may be recommended if other treatments fail to provide relief from symptoms[4][8]


[1]: Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) | Johns Hopkins Medicine (https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/premenstrual-dysphoric-disorder-pmdd)
[2]: Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) | Office on Women's Health (https://www.womenshealth.gov/menstrual-cycle/premenstrual-syndrome/premenstrual-dysphoric-disorder-pmdd)
[3]: Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder: Symptoms & Treatment (https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/9132-premenstrual-dysphoric-disorder-pmdd)
[4]: Sexual Health: Your Guide to Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (https://www.webmd.com/women/pms/premenstrual-dysphoric-disorder)
[5]: What is PMDD? - Mind (https://www.mind.org.uk/information-support/types-of-mental-health-problems/premenstrual-dysphoric-disorder-pmdd/about-pmdd/)
[6]: Premenstrual dysphoric disorder - Wikipedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Premenstrual_dysphoric_disorder)
[7]: Premenstrual dysphoric disorder: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia (https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007193.htm)
[8]: Patient education: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual ... (https://www.uptodate.com/contents/premenstrual-syndrome-pms-and-premenstrual-dysphoric-disorder-pmdd-beyond-the-basics)

AI

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). It is characterized by extreme mood swings, irritability, depression, anxiety and other physical symptoms that occur in the days leading up to menstruation. PMDD affects about 3-8% of women during their reproductive years. Treatment options include lifestyle changes such as exercise and stress management techniques, medications such as antidepressants or birth control pills, and cognitive behavioral therapy.