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Osteoporosis is a bone disease that develops when bone mineral density and bone mass decreases, or when the structure and strength of bone changes [2]. It causes bones to become weak and brittle [1], making them more likely to break easily [7]. Risk factors for osteoporosis include age, gender, family history, low body weight, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption and certain medications [8]. Symptoms may not be noticeable until a fracture occurs [3], but can include back pain due to fractured vertebrae or loss of height over time as bones weaken in the spine. Treatment options vary depending on severity but typically involve lifestyle modifications such as increasing calcium intake through diet or supplements and engaging in regular exercise. Medications are also available to help slow down further deterioration of bones caused by osteoporosis[4][5][6][9][10].

[1]: Osteoporosis - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic (
[2]: Osteoporosis Causes & Symptoms | NIAMS (
[3]: Osteoporosis: Symptoms, Causes, Tests & Treatment (
[4]: Osteoporosis | MedlinePlus (
[5]: Learn What Osteoporosis Is and What It's Caused by (
[6]: Osteoporosis Overview | NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone ... (
[7]: Does Osteoporosis Run in Your Family? | CDC (
[8]: Diseases and Conditions Osteoporosis (
[9]: Osteoporosis | National Institute on Aging (
[10]: OrthoInfo - AAOS - Osteoporosis (


Osteoporosis is a condition in which the bones become weak and brittle due to loss of bone density. It can lead to an increased risk of fractures, especially in the spine, hips, and wrists. Osteoporosis is most common among older adults but can affect people of any age. Risk factors for developing osteoporosis include being female, having a family history of the disease, smoking cigarettes or drinking alcohol excessively, not getting enough calcium or vitamin D in your diet, leading a sedentary lifestyle with little physical activity, and taking certain medications such as steroids. Treatment options for osteoporosis include lifestyle changes (such as increasing physical activity), dietary modifications (increasing calcium intake), medications (bisphosphonates) that help slow down bone loss and increase bone strength; hormone replacement therapy; and supplements such as vitamin D3.