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Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis [2]. It is a degenerative joint disease that can affect many tissues of the joint [3], and it is caused by the gradual deterioration of cartilage, which cushions the ends of bones in joints [1]. OA is also referred to as "wear and tear" arthritis or degenerative arthritis [4][5][6] and it usually affects middle-aged to elderly people [5], although it can affect any joint in the body [7]. Symptoms include pain, stiffness, swelling and decreased range of motion in affected joints[8]. Treatment options may include lifestyle changes such as exercise and weight loss; medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); physical therapy; injections; surgery; or alternative therapies.

[1]: Osteoarthritis - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic (
[2]: Osteoarthritis (OA) | Arthritis | CDC (
[3]: Osteoarthritis | Arthritis Foundation (
[4]: Osteoarthritis: Symptoms, Causes and Treatment (
[5]: Diseases and Conditions Osteoarthritis (
[6]: Osteoarthritis: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, and More (
[7]: Osteoarthritis (OA) | Causes, symptoms, treatments (
[8]: Osteoarthritis | Johns Hopkins Medicine (


Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease that affects the cartilage, bones, and other tissues in the joints. It is characterized by pain, stiffness, swelling, and decreased range of motion. Osteoarthritis can affect any joint in the body but most commonly occurs in weight-bearing joints such as hips and knees. Treatment options include lifestyle modifications (e.g., exercise), medications (e.g., nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs]), physical therapy, injections (e.g., corticosteroids or hyaluronic acid), and surgery (e.g., arthroplasty).