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Neuropathy is a general term for any disorder of the peripheral nerves, which are located outside of the brain and spinal cord [1]. Neuropathies can be categorized by the number of nerves they affect: mononeuropathy affects just one nerve, while polyneuropathies affect multiple nerves [2]. There are four main types of neuropathy: autonomic, peripheral, proximal and focal neuropathy [5]. Autonomic neuropathy affects the involuntary nervous system that controls functions such as digestion and blood pressure. Peripheral neuropathy affects sensory neurons in areas such as hands and feet. Proximal neuropathy causes pain in muscles near joints like hips or shoulders. Focal neuropathies cause damage to specific nerves resulting in symptoms such as unilateral foot drop or ulnar nerve palsy [4][6]. Diabetic neuropathies are a common type of polyneuropathic disease caused by diabetes mellitus; these include peripheral, proximal and autonomic forms[3][5]. The prevalence of diabetic neuropathies varies depending on population studied but estimates range from 20-50%[7].


[1]: Peripheral Neuropathy | Johns Hopkins Medicine (https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/peripheral-neuropathy)
[2]: Types of Neuropathy and What to Do About It – Neurology ... (https://ncaz.org/types-of-neuropathy-and-what-to-do-about-it/)
[3]: Types of Diabetic Neuropathy (https://www.endocrineweb.com/guides/diabetic-neuropathy/types-diabetic-neuropathy)
[4]: Additional Types of Neuropathy | ADA (https://diabetes.org/diabetes/neuropathy/additional-types-neuropathy)
[5]: Diabetic neuropathy: Types, symptoms, and causes (https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/245310)
[6]: Peripheral Neuropathy - Symptoms, Types and Causes (https://www.webmd.com/brain/understanding-peripheral-neuropathy-basics)
[7]: The prevalence by staged severity of various types of diabetic ... (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8469345/)

AI

Neuropathy is a general term for any disorder of the nerves. It can be caused by many different conditions, including diabetes, autoimmune diseases, vitamin deficiencies, and physical trauma. Symptoms vary depending on the type of neuropathy but may include numbness or tingling in the hands and feet, muscle weakness or pain, burning sensations in the extremities, and difficulty with balance or coordination. Treatment depends on the underlying cause but may involve medications to reduce nerve pain as well as lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking and eating a healthy diet.