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Menopause is the time that marks the end of a woman's menstrual cycles and is diagnosed after 12 months without a period [1][2]. It usually occurs naturally around age 45 [3], but can occur earlier due to medical conditions or treatments such as chemotherapy for cancer [5]. The years leading up to menopause are known as perimenopause and involve changes in hormone levels which can cause symptoms such as hot flashes, night sweats, mood swings, vaginal dryness and more [4]. Treatments may be available to help manage these symptoms. After menopause has occurred, women enter postmenopause which lasts until the end of their lives. During this time they will no longer have periods or be able to get pregnant [6].

[1]: Menopause - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic (
[2]: What Is Menopause? | National Institute on Aging (
[3]: Menopause | Menopause Symptoms | MedlinePlus (
[4]: Menopause | Office on Women's Health (
[5]: Menopause (
[6]: Postmenopause: Signs, Symptoms & What to Expect (


Menopause is a natural process that marks the end of a woman's reproductive years. It typically occurs between the ages of 45 and 55, when a woman's ovaries stop producing eggs and her body produces less estrogen and progesterone. During this time, women may experience physical symptoms such as hot flashes, night sweats, vaginal dryness, mood swings, fatigue, insomnia and changes in libido. Menopause can also bring psychological challenges such as depression or anxiety. Treatment options for menopausal symptoms include hormone replacement therapy (HRT), lifestyle modifications such as diet and exercise changes to reduce stress levels or improve sleep quality; herbal remedies; over-the-counter medications; or alternative therapies like acupuncture or yoga.