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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a gradual loss of kidney function over several years [5]. It is caused by damage to the kidneys that can get worse over time [4], and it can cause high blood pressure, anemia, weak bones, poor nutritional health and nerve damage [3]. Symptoms may not be noticeable in the early stages of CKD but as it progresses there may be swelling in the feet or ankles, fatigue, difficulty concentrating and decreased appetite [1][2][6]. The stages of CKD are based on eGFR test results which measure how well your kidneys work to filter waste from your body's bloodstream [7]. Treatment for CKD includes lifestyle changes such as diet modification and exercise as well as medications to control symptoms like high blood pressure. In severe cases dialysis or a kidney transplant may be necessary [8].

[1]: Chronic kidney disease - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic (
[2]: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) - Symptoms, causes, treatment ... (
[3]: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) | NIDDK (
[4]: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) (
[5]: Chronic kidney disease: Symptoms, stage, treatment, and more (
[6]: Chronic kidney disease: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia (
[7]: Stages of kidney disease (
[8]: Chronic Kidney Disease | Kidney Disease | CKD | Medlineplus (


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a condition in which the kidneys are damaged and cannot filter blood as effectively as they should. This can lead to an accumulation of waste products, electrolyte imbalances, and other health problems. CKD can be caused by a variety of factors including diabetes, high blood pressure, infections, or inherited diseases. Treatment for CKD typically involves lifestyle changes such as diet modification and exercise; medications to control symptoms; dialysis; or transplantation.