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Carcinoma is a type of cancer that starts in cells that make up the skin or the tissue lining organs, such as the liver or kidneys [3]. It begins in epithelial tissue, which lines most of your organs and internal passageways [1][2]. There are two main types of carcinoma: basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Basal cell carcinomas begin in the basal cells, which make skin cells that continuously push older cells toward the surface [4], while squamous cell carcinomas are characterized by abnormal, uncontrolled growths or lesions caused by damage to DNA [5][6]. Treatment for these cancers can vary depending on their stage and location but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy [7][8][9].

[1]: What is Carcinoma? Cancer Types, Stages & Treatment | CTCA (
[2]: Carcinoma: Types, Treatment & What it Is (
[3]: Types of Carcinoma: Basal Cell, Squamous Cell, and ... (
[4]: Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin - Symptoms and causes ... (
[5]: Carcinoma: Basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma (
[6]: Squamous Cell Carcinoma - The Skin Cancer Foundation (
[7]: Treatment by Cancer Type (
[8]: Renal Cell Carcinoma - INTRODUCTION - Uroweb (
[9]: Definition of carcinoma in situ - NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms - NCI (


Carcinoma is a type of cancer that begins in the cells that line or cover the surface of organs, such as the skin, lungs, and digestive tract. It is caused by abnormal cell growth and can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated. Symptoms vary depending on where it develops but may include lumps or bumps under the skin, changes in bowel habits, unexplained weight loss, fatigue, and pain. Treatment options depend on how advanced the cancer is but may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy or immunotherapy.