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Brain trauma, or traumatic brain injury (TBI), is an injury that affects how the brain works and is caused by a forceful bump, blow, or jolt to the head or body [2][4][5][6]. It can also be caused by an object that pierces the skull and enters the brain tissue [2]. The Brain Trauma Foundation leads research about TBIs and has published guidelines for managing severe cases of TBI [1][7]. Symptoms of TBI may include headaches, confusion, memory problems, difficulty concentrating, mood changes and more [3]. Treatment options vary depending on severity but may include medications to reduce swelling in the brain as well as physical therapy to help with motor skills and cognitive rehabilitation to improve thinking abilities [8].

[1]: Brain Trauma Foundation (
[2]: Traumatic brain injury - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic (
[3]: Traumatic Brain Injury | Johns Hopkins Medicine (
[4]: Get the Facts About TBI | Concussion | Traumatic Brain Injury | CDC ... (
[5]: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) | National Institute of Neurological ... (
[6]: Traumatic Brain Injury | TBI | MedlinePlus (
[7]: Guidelines for the Management of Severe TBI, 4th Ed. - Brain Trauma (
[8]: Brain Trauma - StatPearls - NCBI Bookshelf (


Brain trauma is an injury to the brain caused by a sudden physical force, such as a blow or jolt to the head. It can also be caused by an object penetrating the skull and entering brain tissue. Brain trauma can range from mild (concussion) to severe (traumatic brain injury). Symptoms of traumatic brain injury may include headache, confusion, memory loss, nausea, vomiting, seizures, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, balance problems and changes in mood or behavior. Treatment for traumatic brain injury depends on its severity and may involve medications to reduce swelling and inflammation in the brain as well as surgery to repair any damage that has occurred.