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Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), also known as Hughes syndrome, is a disorder of the immune system that causes an increased risk of blood clots [1]. It is caused by the body's immune system producing abnormal antibodies called antiphospholipid antibodies [3]. Symptoms include thrombosis and/or an adverse pregnancy outcome in the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies [7]. It is mostly present in young women [2] and can be diagnosed using criteria outlined in the Sapporo preliminary classification criteria for APS or at the Eleventh International Congress on antiphospholipid antibodies [8]. Treatment includes medications to reduce clotting risk such as aspirin, heparin, warfarin, and other drugs to suppress inflammation or modify immunity[4][5][6].


[1]: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) - NHS (https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/antiphospholipid-syndrome/)
[2]: Antiphospholipid Syndrome (https://www.rheumatology.org/I-Am-A/Patient-Caregiver/Diseases-Conditions/Antiphospholipid-Syndrome)
[3]: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) - Causes - NHS (https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/antiphospholipid-syndrome/causes/)
[4]: Antiphospholipid Syndrome: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment (https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/21685-antiphospholipid-syndrome)
[5]: Antiphospholipid Syndrome - National Organization for Rare Disorders (https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/antiphospholipid-syndrome/)
[6]: Antiphospholipid syndrome: MedlinePlus Genetics (https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/antiphospholipid-syndrome/)
[7]: Diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome - UpToDate (https://www.uptodate.com/contents/diagnosis-of-antiphospholipid-syndrome)
[8]: International consensus statement on an update of the classification ... (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16420554/)

AI

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies in the blood. These antibodies can cause a variety of symptoms, including recurrent miscarriages, thrombosis, and stroke. Treatment typically involves anticoagulant medications to reduce the risk of clotting and other complications.