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Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a type of arthritis that causes inflammation in the joints and ligaments of the spine [2]. It can cause some of the bones in the spine (vertebrae) to fuse over time [1], resulting in pain and stiffness in the lower back [3][ 5]. Other areas of the body may also become inflamed, such as hips, shoulders, ribs and heels [4]. Ankylosing spondylitis is a lifelong condition which is classified as a type of axial spondyloarthritis [5] and it is sometimes referred to as "marble bone disease" due to its ability to cause hardening or calcification of affected tissues. Treatment typically involves medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), biologic agents, corticosteroids or physical therapy exercises. Surgery may be necessary for severe cases [6][7][8][9].

[1]: Ankylosing spondylitis - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic (
[2]: Ankylosing Spondylitis Causes & Treatment | NIAMS (
[3]: Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS): Symptoms, Causes & Treatment (
[4]: Ankylosing Spondylitis Overview | SPONDYLITIS.ORG (
[5]: Ankylosing spondylitis - NHS (
[6]: Ankylosing spondylitis | Symptoms, causes, treatments (
[7]: Ankylosing Spondylitis | MedlinePlus (
[8]: Ankylosing spondylitis - Wikipedia (
[9]: Ankylosing Spondylitis | Johns Hopkins Medicine (


Ankylosing spondylitis is a type of inflammatory arthritis that primarily affects the spine. It causes inflammation and pain in the joints between the vertebrae, as well as in other areas such as the hips, shoulders, ribs, and heels. Over time, this can lead to fusion of the vertebrae and a rigid spine. Symptoms may include stiffness or pain in the lower back or hips that worsens with activity; fatigue; loss of appetite; weight loss; fever; night sweats; difficulty sleeping due to pain or stiffness; and depression. Treatment typically includes medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), biologic agents, corticosteroids, physical therapy exercises to maintain flexibility and strength in affected joints, lifestyle modifications such as avoiding activities that worsen symptoms like smoking cessation if applicable , stress management techniques like yoga or meditation , heat/cold therapies for symptom relief , splints for joint support , assistive devices like canes or walkers when needed .